Information: farms & animals

Information on the theory and practice of using farming & animals as a tool for working with people outdoors – from case studies to policies, examples of forms, documents & handouts, research and articles, and much more to support your theoretical explorations into the outdoors.

With your help the information section can grow – can you recommend sample policies, signpost articles or videos, share documents or resources? Please contribute so we can build the knowledge and good practice of all people working with groups outdoors. Contact us via

Reports, articles, research etc are, as much as possible, arranged in chronological order, most recent at the top.

farms & animals

Ian Egginton-Metters OBEIan Egginton Metters is Assistant Chief Executive of the Federation of City Farms & Community Gardens (FCFCG). He has helped develop and is involved in a number of partnerships including Care Farming UK, the School Farms Network, Growing Schools and Access to Farms.

Ian was awarded an OBE in 2014 in recognition of his contribution to city farming. He shares a little of his knowledge with us here:

What does the phrase ‘outdoor curriculum’ mean to you?

Hands-on real-life gardening and farming education.

It is a requirement on schools that all pupils are given the opportunities to experience ‘awe and wonder’, irrespective of whether that forms part of a qualification. Can you think of anything that is better suited to this form of education than seeing a chick hatch, or the first taste of a freshly harvested vegetable?

Tell us about some of the projects you work on that offer an outdoor curriculum.

Growing Schools was set up in 2000 with funding from the DofE to encourage practical hands-on horticulture and farming education. It developed a website (working with the Access To Farms partnership) listing farms to visit & with hundreds of resources for teachers.

Countryside Classroom logoFrom this, a new programme launched in June 2015, the Countryside Classroom, with a broader partnership and better online tools for accessing resources and information about farms, gardens and other countryside places to visit that offer educational opportunities.

FCFCG logoThe Federation of City Farms & Community Gardens (FCFCG) supports a network of school farms (111 + a similar number of schools interested in rearing livestock), liaises with other organisations supporting schools (including member ‘hubs’ in Manchester, Sheffield and Devon), campaigns for more practical qualifications to be made available to pupils, and, through the Access To Farms partnership, ensures that farmers have the necessary knowledge & skills to provide safe, educational farm visits (including CEVAS training courses).

Benefits of participation

We should not let the loss of land-based qualification and league tables challenge the benefits to personal development which the real life learning afforded by school farms and gardens gives to thousands of pupils each year. Our schools invest in science equipment and art materials; why not seeds, manures and livestock food?

Education should be for life as much as for qualifications and careers. People also have different learning styles and those who best ‘learn by doing’ deserve the same opportunities as children able to flourish in an indoor classroom environment. Society also needs people with a variety of skills, including practical/’vocational’ skills, and if this learning is not available within schools we shall merely create an increasing number of children leaving school labelled as ‘failures’.

Increasing lack of connection with the land and growing, the increasing availability of ready-meals whose content is of no interest or understanding for the majority of people, a lack of awareness of seasons and where our food comes from, all these issues are increasing and of major concern. The outdoor curriculum can address all these issues.

The benefits go on… improved attendance, better concentration in class, healthier children, team building, learning to understand about personal care through caring for plants and animals, schools attracting pupils looking for these opportunities, out-of-school opportunities (garden or farm club, holiday care, parental volunteering etc) and more!

Thanks very much to Ian Egginton-Metters OBE.

For more information about the projects mentioned go to:

• Access to Farms
• Care Farming UK
• Countryside Classroom
• Federation of City Farms & Community Gardens
• School Farms Network

10 Ways to Teach Children about Where Their Food Comes From

“Ways that parents can help to connect their children with the outdoors in general and farming in particular.” Farmer’s Wife & Mummy, 6 July 2017.

Lack of Government funding leaves kids wondering where food comes from

‘A leading farming charity has warned some children are missing out on learning where their food comes from because of a lack of Government funding.’ Farmers Guardian, 28 Jun 2017.

How to Make Dog Walking Fun

From dog sledding to tracking & geocaching – get outdoors with your dog! Active Outdoors, 1 May 2017.

Active Outdoors logo

Meet the hunky headmaster who teaches kids to use a shotgun

Focus on a primary school in East Sussex using Forest School sessions and animal husbandry with its children. The Telegraph, 7 February 2016.

a man in a field wearing a fur coat

Care, farms & dementia

Indepth blog post on care farms & the benefits for people with dementia. Pippa Kelly, 13 January 2015.

The young pupils who think farms grow mud

One in six children is also unaware vegetables are grown there, survey finds
Nearly half of primary school children have never visited a working farm and one in 25 believes that farmers ‘grow mud’. A new poll has revealed widespread ignorance of the countryside and origins of food.’ Mail Online, 14 July 2014. 

European Federation of City Farms: activities 

Resource of city farm-related activities for children including song books, arts & crafts, animal activities & recycling projects.

European Federation of City Farms: good practice

‘The “Database of good practice” shows examples of city farm work all over Europe,’ including educational resources, practical guides, access issues, arts & nature.

European Federation of City Farms: guidance papers

Library of resources giving advice on city farm-related topics such as biodiversity, animal welfare, the creation of a new city farm, etc.


Our farms & animals links page signposts you to the main national bodies, key organisations, initiatives and websites in the world of art and creativity outdoors.

Have a browse – there are tons of links to loads of interesting, important & inspiring organisations!

Sections include:

Access & disability
City farms, school farms & farm education
Farm animals & rare breeds
Farms online
Farm visits
Health & safety and welfare
National organisations
Zoos & safari parks

European Federation of City Farms: research papers

Library of research including looking into the benefits of social farming, children’s farms, animals, sustainable development and play. 1989-2016.

Care farming: Defining the ‘offer’ in England

Report looking at how care farms can enable access to the natural environment for a range of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups that may not normally access the outdoors. Natural England, 7 August 2014.